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13. Usenet software: a historical perspective

This section comprises excerpts from a well-known Usenet Periodic Posting document which was last changed in Feb 1998. Our copy of that old document was picked up from

We suspect other copies will also be found elsewhere. The physical file on the FTP server appears to have been touched last on 29 Dec 1999. The first few lines of the archived file provide information about the origin of this document and its authors:

Date: Tue, 28 Dec 1999 09:00:19 GMT
Supersedes: <>
Expires: Fri, 28 Jan 2000 09:00:19 GMT
Message-ID: <>
From: (Mark Moraes)
Subject: Usenet Software: History and Sources
Newsgroups: news.admin.misc,news.announce.newusers,,,news.answers
Followup-To: news.newusers.questions
Approved: (Mark Moraes)

Archive-name: usenet/software/part1
Original-from: (Gene Spafford)
Comment: edited until 5/93 by (Gene Spafford)
Last-change: 9 Feb 1998 by (Mark Moraes)
Changes-posted-to: news.admin.misc,news.misc,,,news.answers

We have been seeing this document as a periodic posting in news.announce.newusers since the early nineties, and it has always been our final reference on the history of Usenet server software. We reproduce excerpts below, retaining the portions which discuss server software, and removing discussions of client software, newsreaders, software for non-Unix operating systems, etc. All quoted portions are reproduced unedited other than changing FTP file paths to the modern URL format. We have added our comments emphasised, in separate paragraphs. We feel the information captured here is essential reading for anyone interested in Usenet server software.

If anyone can point us to a fresher version of this document, in case it is still maintained, we will be happy to refer to that version instead of this one, though we suspect the reader will not suffer due to the four-year gap; most of the information reproduced below is historical anyway.

13.1. The quoted excerpts

Currently, Usenet readers interact with the news using a number of software packages and programs. This article mentions the important ones and a little of their history, gives pointers where you can look for more information and ends with some special notes about ``foreign'' and ``obsolete'' software. At the very end is a list of sites from which current versions of the Usenet software may be obtained.


13.1.1. History

Usenet came into being in late 1979, shortly after the release of V7 Unix with UUCP. Two Duke University grad students in North Carolina, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis, thought of hooking computers together to exchange information with the Unix community. Steve Bellovin, a grad student at the University of North Carolina, put together the first version of the news software using shell scripts and installed it on the first two sites: unc and duke. At the beginning of 1980 the network consisted of those two sites and phs (another machine at Duke), and was described at the January Usenix conference. Steve Bellovin later rewrote the scripts into C programs, but they were never released beyond unc and duke. Shortly thereafter, Steve Daniel did another implementation in C for public distribution. Tom Truscott made further modifications, and this became the ``A'' news release.

In 1981 at U. C. Berkeley, grad student Mark Horton and high school student Matt Glickman rewrote the news software to add functionality and to cope with the ever increasing volume of news -- ``A'' News was intended for only a few articles per group per day. This rewrite was the ``B'' News version. The first public release was version 2.1 in 1982; the 1.* versions were all beta test. As the net grew, the news software was expanded and modified. The last version maintained and released primarily by Mark was 2.10.1.

Rick Adams, at the Center for Seismic Studies, took over coordination of the maintenance and enhancement of the B News software with the 2.10.2 release in 1984. By this time, the increasing volume of news was becoming a concern, and the mechanism for moderated groups was added to the software at 2.10.2. Moderated groups were inspired by ARPA mailing lists and experience with other bulletin board systems. In late 1986, version 2.11 of B News was released, including a number of changes to support a new naming structure for newsgroups, enhanced batching and compression, enhanced ihave/sendme control messages, and other features.

The final release of B News was 2.11, patchlevel 19. B News has been declared ``dead'' by a number of people, including Rick Adams, and is unlikely to be upgraded further; most Usenet sites are using C News or INN (see next paragraphs).

In March 1986 a package was released implementing news transmission, posting, and reading using the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) (as specified in RFC 977). This protocol allows hosts to exchange articles via TCP/IP connections rather than using the traditional UUCP. It also permits users to read and post news (using a modified news user agent) from machines which cannot or choose not to install the Usenet news software. Reading and posting are done using TCP/IP messages to a server host which does run the Usenet software. Sites which have many workstations like the Sun and SGI, and HP products find this a convenient way to allow workstation users to read news without having to store articles on each system. Many of the Usenet hosts that are also on the Internet exchange news articles using NNTP because the load impact of NNTP is much lower than UUCP (and NNTP ensures much faster propagation).

Our comments: This remark about relative loadings of UUCP and NNTP is no longer applicable with faster machines and networks, and with hugely increased traffic volumes. Today's desktop computers, let alone servers, can all handle both NNTP and UUCP loads effortlessly, if traffic volumes can be restricted. This is partly due to performance enhancements to UUCP as embodied in Taylor UUCP, and partly due to vastly faster processors.

NNTP grew out of independent work in 1984-1985 by Brian Kantor at U. C. San Diego and Phil Lapsley at U. C. Berkeley. Primary development was done at U. C. Berkeley by Phil Lapsley with help from Erik Fair, Steven Grady, and Mike Meyer, among others. The NNTP package (now called the reference implementation) was distributed on the 4.3BSD release tape (although that was version 1.2a and out-of-date) and is also available on many major hosts by anonymous FTP. The current version is It includes NOV (News Overview -- see below) support and runs on a wide variety of systems. It is available from For those with access to the World-Wide Web on the Internet, the WWW page contains a description and news about NNTP. A different variant, called nntp-t5, implements many of the extensions provided by INN (including NOV support). It is available from

One widely-used version of news, known as C News, was developed at the University of Toronto by Geoff Collyer and Henry Spencer. This version is a rewrite of the lowest levels of news to increase article processing speed, decrease article expiration processing and improve the reliability of the news system through better locking, etc. The package was released to the net in the autumn of 1987. For more information, see the paper ``News Need Not Be Slow,'' published in The Winter 1987 Usenix Technical Conference proceedings. This paper is also available from*, and is recommended reading for all news software programmers. The most recent version of C News is the Sept 1994 ``Cleanup Release.'' C News can be obtained by anonymous ftp from its official archive site,

Our comments: C News is no longer maintained by anyone that we know, other than ourselves. However, after fixing the remaining bugs in the source, we have not found the need for further maintenance. NNTPd from Brian Kantor and Phil Lapsley is in the same state, but we are working on enhancements to the source for access control and other functionality.

Another Usenet system, known as InterNetNews, or INN, was written by Rich Salz ( INN is designed to run on Unix hosts that have a socket interface. It is optimized for larger hosts where most traffic uses NNTP, but it does provide full UUCP support. INN is very fast, and since it integrates NNTP many people find it easier to administer only one package. The package was publicly released on August 20, 1992. For more information, see the paper ``InterNetNews: Usenet Transport for Internet Sites'' published in the June 1992 Usenix Technical Conference Proceedings. INN can be obtained from many places, including the 4.4BSD tape; its official archive site is in the directory /networking/news/nntp/inn. Rich's last official release was 1.4sec in Dec 1993.

Our comments: The original paper by Rich Salz about INN, where he proposed the design of an alternate Usenet server software, is a must-read for readers interested in Usenet server software. So is the paper by C News authors, cited before it. Most of the issues that Rich Salz had with C News, as stated in his paper, were very relevant at that time. Today, with the current version of NNTPd and the incorporation of the message ID daemon and NOV, these issues are no longer relevant, and the choice of C News+NNTPd versus INN is now based more on the level of maintenance of source code, familiarity and personal preferences than on core design factors.

In June 1995, David Barr began a series of unoffical releases of INN based on 1.4sec, integrating various bug-fixes, enhancements and security patches. His last release was 1.4unoff4, found in This site is also the home of contributed software for INN and other news administration tools.

INN is now maintained by the Internet Software Consortium ( The official INN home is now and the latest version (1.7.2) can be obtained from

Our comments: The URL for the INN home page above is probably incorrect. Try

Towards the end of 1992, Geoff Collyer implemented NOV (News Overview): a database that stores the important headers of all news articles as they arrive. This is intended for use by the implementors of news readers to provide fast article presentation by sorting and ``threading'' the article headers. (Before NOV, newsreaders like trn, tin and nn came with their own daemons and databases that used a nontrivial amount of system resources). NOV is fully supported by C News, INN and NNTP-t5. Most modern news readers use NOV to get information for their threading and article menu presentation; use of NOV by a newsreader is fairly easy, since NOV comes with sample client-side threading code.


Details on many other mail and news readers for MSDOS, Windows and OS/2 systems can be found in the FAQ posted to comp.os.msdos.mail-news.


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