The reasons for the design of RTLinux can be understood by examining the working of the standard Linux kernel. The Linux kernel separates the hardware from the user-level tasks. The kernel uses scheduling algorithms and assigns priority to each task for providing good average performances or throughput. Thus the kernel has the ability to suspend any user-level task, once that task has outrun the time-slice allotted to it by the CPU. This scheduling algorithms along with device drivers, uninterruptible system calls, the use of interrupt disabling and virtual memory operations are sources of unpredictability. That is to say, these sources cause hindrance to the realtime performance of a task.
You might already be familiar with the non-realtime performance, say, when you are listening to the music played using 'mpg123' or any other player. After executing this process for a pre-determined time-slice, the standard Linux kernel could preempt the task and give the CPU to another one (e.g. one that boots up the X server or Netscape). Consequently, the continuity of the music is lost. Thus, in trying to ensure fair distribution of CPU time among all processes, the kernel can prevent other events from occurring.
A realtime kernel should be able to guarantee the timing requirements of the processes under it. The RTLinux kernel accomplishes realtime performances by removing such sources of unpredictability as discussed above. We can consider the RTLinux kernel as sitting between the standard Linux kernel and the hardware. The Linux kernel sees the realtime layer as the actual hardware. Now, the user can both introduce and set priorities to each and every task. The user can achieve correct timing for the processes by deciding on the scheduling algorithms, priorities, frequency of execution etc. The RTLinux kernel assigns lowest priority to the standard Linux kernel. Thus the user-task will be executed in realtime.
The actual realtime performance is obtained by intercepting all hardware interrupts. Only for those interrupts that are related to the RTLinux, the appropriate interrupt service routine is run. All other interrupts are held and passed to the Linux kernel as software interrupts when the RTLinux kernel is idle and then the standard Linux kernel runs. The RTLinux executive is itself nonpreemptible.
Realtime tasks are privileged (that is, they have direct access to hardware), and they do not use virtual memory. Realtime tasks are written as special Linux modules that can be dynamically loaded into memory. The initialization code for a realtime tasks initializes the realtime task structure and informs RTLinux kernel of its deadline, period, and release-time constraints.
RTLinux co-exists along with the Linux kernel since it leaves the Linux kernel untouched. Via a set of relatively simple modifications, it manages to convert the existing Linux kernel into a hard realtime environment without hindering future Linux development.
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