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3.17. Process Substitution

Process substitution is the counterpart to command substitution. Command substitution sets a variable to the result of a command, as in dir_contents=`ls -al` or xref=$( grep word datafile). Process substitution feeds the output of a process to another process (in other words, it sends the results of a command to another command).

Note: There are no spaces between the parentheses and the "<" or ">". Space there would simply cause redirection from a subshell, rather than process substitution.

      cat <(ls -l)
      # Same as     ls -l | cat

      sort -k 9 <(ls -l /bin) <(ls -l /usr/bin) <(ls -l /usr/X11R6/bin)
      # Lists all the files in the 3 main 'bin' directories, and sorts by filename.
      # Note that three (count 'em) distinct commands are fed to 'sort'.
      




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