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comp.lang.perl.* FAQ 4/5 - General Programming

Archive-name: perl-faq/part4
Version: $Id: part4,v 2.9 1995/05/15 15:46:10 spp Exp spp $
Posting-Frequency: bi-weekly
Last Edited: Thu Jan 11 00:52:25 1996 by spp (Stephen P Potter) on

This posting contains answers to the following questions about General
Programming, Regular Expressions (Regexp) and Input/Output:

4.1) What are all these $@%*<> signs and how do I know when to use them?

    Those are type specifiers: 
	$ for scalar values
	@ for indexed arrays
	% for hashed arrays (associative arrays)
	* for all types of that symbol name.  These are sometimes used like
	    pointers in perl4, but perl5 uses references.
	<> are used for inputting a record from a filehandle.  
    	\ takes a reference to something.

    See the question on arrays of arrays for more about Perl pointers.

    While there are a few places where you don't actually need these type
    specifiers, except for files, you should always use them.  Note that
    <FILE> is NOT the type specifier for files; it's the equivalent of awk's
    getline function, that is, it reads a line from the handle FILE.  When
    doing open, close, and other operations besides the getline function on
    files, do NOT use the brackets.

    Beware of saying:
	$foo = BAR;
    Which wil be interpreted as 
	$foo = 'BAR';
    and not as 
	$foo = <BAR>;
    If you always quote your strings, you'll avoid this trap.

    Normally, files are manipulated something like this (with appropriate
    error checking added if it were production code):

	open (FILE, ">/tmp/foo.$$");
	print FILE "string\n";
	close FILE;

    If instead of a filehandle, you use a normal scalar variable with file
    manipulation functions, this is considered an indirect reference to a
    filehandle.  For example,

	$foo = "TEST01";
	open($foo, "file");

    After the open, these two while loops are equivalent:

	while (<$foo>) {}
	while (<TEST01>) {}

    as are these two statements:
	close $foo;
	close TEST01;

    but NOT to this:

	while (<$TEST01>) {} # error
		^ note spurious dollar sign

    This is another common novice mistake; often it's assumed that

	open($foo, "output.$$");

    will fill in the value of $foo, which was previously undefined.  This
    just isn't so -- you must set $foo to be the name of a filehandle
    before you attempt to open it.   

    Often people request:

    : How about changing perl syntax to be more like awk or C?  I $$mean @less
    : $-signs = <and> &other *special \%characters?

    Larry's answer is:

	Then it would be less like the shell.  :-)

	You'll be pleased to know that I've been trying real hard to get
	rid of unnecessary punctuation in Perl 5.  You'll be displeased to
	know that I don't think noun markers like $ and @ unnecessary.
	Not only do they function like case markers do in human language,
	but they are automatically distinguished within interpolative
	contexts, and the user doesn't have to worry about different
	syntactic treatments for variable references within or without
	such a context.

	But the & prefix on verbs is now optional, just as "do" is in
	English.  I do hope you do understand what I mean.

	For example, you used to have to write this:

	    &california || &bust;

	It can now be written more cleanly like this:

	    california or bust;

	Strictly speaking, of course, $ and @ aren't case markers, but
	number markers.  English has mandatory number markers, and people
	get upset when they doesn't agree.

	It were just convenient in Perl (for the shellish interplative
	reasons mentioned above) to pull the markers out to the front of
	each noun phrase.  Most people seems to like it that way.  It
	certainly seem to make more sense than putting them on the end,
	like most varieties of BASIC does.

4.2) How come Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?

    Actually, they don't; all C operators have the same precedence in Perl as
    they do in C.  The problem is with a class of functions called list
    operators, e.g. print, chdir, exec, system, and so on.  These are somewhat
    bizarre in that they have different precedence depending on whether you
    look on the left or right of them.  Basically, they gobble up all things
    on their right.  For example,

	unlink $foo, "bar", @names, "others";

    will unlink all those file names.  A common mistake is to write:

	unlink "a_file" || die "snafu";

    The problem is that this gets interpreted as

	unlink("a_file" || die "snafu");

    To avoid this problem, you can always make them look like function calls
    or use an extra level of parentheses:

	unlink("a_file")  || die "snafu";
	(unlink "a_file") || die "snafu";

    In perl5, there are low precedence "and", "or", and "not" operators,
    which bind less tightly than comma.  This allows you to write:

	unlink $foo, "bar", @names, "others" 	or die "snafu";

    Sometimes you actually do care about the return value:

	unless ($io_ok = print("some", "list")) { } 

    Yes, print() returns I/O success.  That means

	$io_ok = print(2+4) * 5;

    returns 5 times whether printing (2+4) succeeded, and 
	print(2+4) * 5;
    returns the same 5*io_success value and tosses it.

    See the perlop(1) man page's section on Precedence for more gory details,
    and be sure to use the -w flag to catch things like this.

    One very important thing to be aware of is that if you start thinking
    of Perl's $, @, %, and & as just flavored versions of C's * operator,
    you're going to be sorry.  They aren't really operators, per se, and
    even if you do think of them that way.  In C, if you write


    then the brackets will bind more tightly than the star, yielding


    But in perl, they DO NOT!  That's because the ${}, @{}, %{}, and &{}
    notations (and I suppose the *{} one as well for completeness) aren't
    actually operators.  If they were, you'd be able to write them as *()
    and that's not feasible.  Instead of operators whose precedence is
    easily understandable, they are instead figments of yacc's grammar.
    This means that:


    is really


    (by which I actually mean)


    and not


    See the difference?  If not, check out perlref(1) for gory details.

4.3) What's the difference between dynamic and static (lexical) scoping?
     What are my() and local()?
    [NOTE: This question refers to perl5 only.  There is no my() in perl4]
    Scoping refers to visibility of variables.  A dynamic variable is
    created via local() and is just a local value for a global variable,
    whereas a lexical variable created via my() is more what you're
    expecting from a C auto.  (See also "What's the difference between
    deep and shallow binding.")  In general, we suggest you use lexical
    variables wherever possible, as they're faster to access and easier to
    understand.   The "use strict vars" pragma will enforce that all
    variables are either lexical, or full classified by package name.  We
    strongly suggest that you develop your code with "use strict;" and the
    -w flag.  (When using formats, however, you will still have to use
    dynamic variables.)  Here's an example of the difference:

    	$myvar = 10;
    	$localvar = 10;

    	print "Before the sub call - my: $myvar, local: $localvar\n";

    	print "After the sub call - my: $myvar, local: $localvar\n";


    	sub sub1 {
    	    my $myvar;
    	    local $localvar;

    	    $myvar = 5;     # Only in this block
    	    $localvar = 20; # Accessible to children

    	    print "Inside first sub call - my: $myvar, local: $localvar\n";


    	sub sub2 {
    	    print "Inside second sub - my: $myvar, local: $localvar\n";

    Notice that the variables declared with my() are visible only within
    the scope of the block which names them.  They are not visible outside
    of this block, not even in routines or blocks that it calls.  local() 
    variables, on the other hand, are visible to routines that are called
    from the block where they are declared.  Neither is visible after the
    end (the final closing curly brace) of the block at all.

    Oh, lexical variables are only available in perl5.  Have we mentioned
    yet that you might consider upgrading? :-) 

4.4) What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?

    5.000 answer:

    This only matters when you're making subroutines yourself, at least
    so far.   This will give you shallow binding:

          my $x = time;
          $coderef = sub { $x };

    When you call &$coderef(), it will get whatever dynamic $x happens
    to be around when invoked.  However, you can get the other behaviour
    this way:

          my $x = time;
          $coderef = eval "sub { \$x }";

    Now you'll access the lexical variable $x which is set to the
    time the subroutine was created.  Note that the difference in these
    two behaviours can be considered a bug, not a feature, so you should
    in particular not rely upon shallow binding, as it will likely go
    away in the future.  See perlref(1).

    5.001 Answer:

    Perl will always give deep binding to functions, so you don't need the
    eval hack anymore.   Furthermore,  functions and even formats
    lexically declared nested within another lexical scope have access to
    that scope.

	require 5.001;

	sub mkcounter {
	    my $start = shift;
	    return sub {
		return ++$start;
	$f1 = mkcounter(10);
	$f2 = mkcounter(20);
	print &$f1(), &$f2(); 
    11 21
	print &$f1(), &$f2(), &$f1();
    12 22 13

    See the question on "What's a closure?"

4.5) How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?

    The most efficient way is using pack and unpack.  This is faster than
    using substr.  Here is a sample chunk of code to break up and put back
    together again some fixed-format input lines, in this case, from ps.

	# sample input line:
	#   15158 p5  T      0:00 perl /mnt/tchrist/scripts/now-what
	$ps_t = 'A6 A4 A7 A5 A*';
	open(PS, "ps|");
	$_ = <PS>; print;
	while (<PS>) {
	    ($pid, $tt, $stat, $time, $command) = unpack($ps_t, $_);
	    for $var ('pid', 'tt', 'stat', 'time', 'command' ) {
		print "$var: <", eval "\$$var", ">\n";
	    print 'line=', pack($ps_t, $pid, $tt, $stat, $time, $command),  "\n";

4.6) How can I make a file handle local to a subroutine?

    You must use the type-globbing *VAR notation.  Here is some code to
    cat an include file, calling itself recursively on nested local
    include files (i.e. those with #include "file", not #include <file>):

	sub cat_include {
	    local($name) = @_;

	    warn "<INCLUDING $name>\n";
	    if (!open (FILE, $name)) {
		warn "can't open $name: $!\n";
	    while (<FILE>) {
		if (/^#\s*include "([^"]*)"/) {
		} else {
	    close FILE;

4.7) How can I call alarm() or usleep() from Perl?

    If you want finer granularity than 1 second (as usleep() provides) and
    have itimers and syscall() on your system, you can use the following.
    You could also use select().

    It takes a floating-point number representing how long to delay until
    you get the SIGALRM, and returns a floating- point number representing
    how much time was left in the old timer, if any.  Note that the C
    function uses integers, but this one doesn't mind fractional numbers.

    # alarm; send me a SIGALRM in this many seconds (fractions ok)
    # tom christiansen <>
    sub alarm {
	require '';
	require 'sys/';

	local($ticks) = @_;
	local($isecs, $iusecs, $secs, $usecs);

	local($itimer_t) = 'L4'; # should be &itimer'typedef()

	$secs = int($ticks);
	$usecs = ($ticks - $secs) * 1e6;

	$out_timer = pack($itimer_t,0,0,0,0);  
	$in_timer  = pack($itimer_t,0,0,$secs,$usecs);

	syscall(&SYS_setitimer, &ITIMER_REAL, $in_timer, $out_timer)
	    && die "alarm: setitimer syscall failed: $!";

	($isecs, $iusecs, $secs, $usecs) = unpack($itimer_t,$out_timer);
	return $secs + ($usecs/1e6);

4.8) How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp() in Perl?  (Exception handling)

    Perl's exception-handling mechanism is its eval operator.  You 
    can use eval as setjmp and die as longjmp.  Here's an example
    of Larry's for timed-out input, which in C is often implemented
    using setjmp and longjmp:

	  sub TIMEOUT { die "restart input\n" }

	  do { eval { &realcode } } while $@ =~ /^restart input/;

	  sub realcode {
	      alarm 15;
	      $ans = <STDIN>;
	      alarm 0;

   Here's an example of Tom's for doing atexit() handling:

	sub atexit { push(@_exit_subs, @_) }

	sub _cleanup { unlink $tmp }


	eval <<'End_Of_Eval';  $here = __LINE__;
	# as much code here as you want

	$oops = $@;  # save error message

	# now call his stuff
	for (@_exit_subs) { &$_() }

	$oops && ($oops =~ s/\(eval\) line (\d+)/$0 .
	    " line " . ($1+$here)/e, die $oops);

    You can register your own routines via the &atexit function now.  You
    might also want to use the &realcode method of Larry's rather than
    embedding all your code in the here-is document.  Make sure to leave
    via die rather than exit, or write your own &exit routine and call
    that instead.   In general, it's better for nested routines to exit
    via die rather than exit for just this reason.

    In Perl5, it is easy to set this up because of the automatic processing
    of per-package END functions.  These work much like they would in awk.
    See perlfunc(1), perlmod(1) and perlrun(1).

    Eval is also quite useful for testing for system dependent features,
    like symlinks, or using a user-input regexp that might otherwise
    blowup on you.

4.9) How do I catch signals in perl?

    Perl allows you to trap signals using the %SIG associative array.
    Using the signals you want to trap as the key, you can assign a
    subroutine to that signal.  The %SIG array will only contain those
    values which the programmer defines.  Therefore, you do not have to
    assign all signals.  For example, to exit cleanly from a ^C:

	sub CLEANUP {
	    print "\n\nCaught Interrupt (^C), Aborting\n";

    There are two special "routines" for signals called DEFAULT and IGNORE.
    DEFAULT erases the current assignment, restoring the default value of
    the signal.  IGNORE causes the signal to be ignored.  In general, you
    don't need to remember these as you can emulate their functionality
    with standard programming features.  DEFAULT can be emulated by
    deleting the signal from the array and IGNORE can be emulated by any
    undeclared subroutine.

    In 5.001, the $SIG{__WARN__} and $SIG{__DIE__} handlers may be used to
    intercept die() and warn().  For example, here's how you could promote
    unitialized variables to trigger a fatal rather merely complaining:

	#!/usr/bin/perl -w 
	require 5.001;
	$SIG{__WARN__} = sub {
	    if ($_[0] =~ /uninit/) {
		die $@;
	    } else {
		warn $@;

4.10) Why doesn't Perl interpret my octal data octally?

    Perl only understands octal and hex numbers as such when they occur
    as literals in your program.  If they are read in from somewhere and
    assigned, then no automatic conversion takes place.  You must
    explicitly use oct() or hex() if you want this kind of thing to happen. 
    Actually, oct() knows to interpret both hex and octal numbers, while
    hex only converts hexadecimal ones.  For example:

	    print "What mode would you like? ";
	    $mode = <STDIN>;
	    $mode = oct($mode);
	    unless ($mode) {
		print "You can't really want mode 0!\n";
	    chmod $mode, $file;

    Without the octal conversion, a requested mode of 755 would turn 
    into 01363, yielding bizarre file permissions of --wxrw--wt.

    If you want something that handles decimal, octal and hex input, 
    you could follow the suggestion in the man page and use:

	$val = oct($val) if $val =~ /^0/;

4.11) How can I compare two date strings?

    If the dates are in an easily parsed, predetermined format, then you
    can break them up into their component parts and call &timelocal from
    the distributed perl library.  If the date strings are in arbitrary
    formats, however, it's probably easier to use the getdate program from
    the Cnews distribution, since it accepts a wide variety of dates.  Note
    that in either case the return values you will really be comparing will
    be the total time in seconds as returned by time(). 
    Here's a getdate function for perl that's not very efficient; you can
    do better than this by sending it many dates at once or modifying
    getdate to behave better on a pipe.  Beware the hardcoded pathname. 

	sub getdate {
	    local($_) = shift;

	    s/-(\d{4})$/+$1/ || s/\+(\d{4})$/-$1/; 
		# getdate has broken timezone sign reversal!

	    $_ = `/usr/local/lib/news/newsbin/getdate '$_'`;

    You can also get the  GetDate extension module that's actually the C
    code linked into perl from wherever fine Perl extensions are given
    away.  It's about 50x faster.  If you can't find it elsewhere, I
    usually keep a copy on for ftp, since I (Tom) ported it.

    Richard Ohnemus <Rick_Ohnemus@Sterling.COM> actually has a getdate.y for
    use with the Perl yacc (see question 3.3 "Is there a yacc for Perl?").  

    You might also consider using these:        - print dates how you want with the sysv +FORMAT method 
    date.shar      - routines to manipulate and calculate dates
    ftp-chat2.shar - updated version of ftpget. includes library and demo 
    getdate.shar   - returns number of seconds since epoch for any given
    ptime.shar     - print dates how you want with the sysv +FORMAT method 

    You probably want 'getdate.shar'... these and other files can be ftp'd
    from the /pub/perl/scripts directory on See the README
    file in the /pub/perl directory for time and the European mirror site

4.12) How can I find the Julian Day?

    Here's an example of a Julian Date function provided by Thomas R.


    @theJulianDate = ( 0, 31, 59, 90, 120, 151, 181, 212, 243, 273, 304, 334 );

    #****   Return 1 if we are after the leap day in a leap year.       *****
    sub leapDay			 
    	my($year,$month,$day) = @_;
    	if (year % 4) {

    	if (!(year % 100)) {             # years that are multiples of 100
	                                 # are not leap years
	    if (year % 400) {            # unless they are multiples of 400
    	if (month < 2) {
        } elsif ((month == 2) && (day < 29)) {
        } else {
    #****   Pass in the date, in seconds, of the day you want the       *****
    #****   julian date for.  If your localtime() returns the year day  *****
    #****   return that, otherwise figure out the julian date.          *****
    sub julianDate	
    	my($dateInSeconds) = @_;
        my($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year, $wday, $yday);
    	($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year, $wday, $yday) =
        if (defined($yday)) {
        } else {
	    return($theJulianDate[$mon] + $mday + &leapDay($year,$mon,$mday));

    print "Today's julian date is: ",&julianDate(time),"\n";

4.13) Does perl have a round function?  What about ceil() and floor()?

    Perl does not have an explicit round function.  However, it is very
    simple to create a rounding function.  Since the int() function simply
    removes the decimal value and returns the integer portion of a number,
    you can use 

    	sub round {
    	    my($number) = shift;

    	    return int($number + .5);

    If you examine what this function is doing, you will see that any
    number greater than .5 will be increased to the next highest integer,
    and any number less than .5 will remain the current integer, which has
    the same effect as rounding.

    A slightly better solution, one which handles negative numbers as well,
    might be to change the return (above) to:

    	return int($number + .5 * ($number <=> 0));

    which will modify the .5 to be either positive or negative, based on
    the number passed into it.

    If you wish to round to a specific significant digit, you can use the
    printf function (or sprintf, depending upon the situation), which does
    proper rounding automatically.  See the perlfunc man page for more
    information on the (s)printf function.

    Version 5 includes a POSIX module which defines the standard C math
    library functions, including floor() and ceil().  floor($num) returns
    the largest integer not greater than $num, while ceil($num) returns the
    smallest integer not less than $num.  For example:

    	use POSIX qw(ceil floor);

    	$num = 42.4;  # The Answer to the Great Question (on a Pentium)!

    	print "Floor returns: ", floor($num), "\n";
    	print "Ceil returns:  ", ceil($num), "\n";

    Which prints:

    	Floor returns: 42
    	Ceil returns:  43

4.14) What's the fastest way to code up a given task in perl?

    Post it to comp.lang.perl.misc and ask Tom or Randal a question about
    it.  ;) 

    Because Perl so lends itself to a variety of different approaches for
    any given task, a common question is which is the fastest way to code a
    given task.  Since some approaches can be dramatically more efficient
    that others, it's sometimes worth knowing which is best.
    Unfortunately, the implementation that first comes to mind, perhaps as
    a direct translation from C or the shell, often yields suboptimal
    performance.  Not all approaches have the same results across different
    hardware and software platforms.  Furthermore, legibility must
    sometimes be sacrificed for speed. 

    While an experienced perl programmer can sometimes eye-ball the code
    and make an educated guess regarding which way would be fastest,
    surprises can still occur.  So, in the spirit of perl programming
    being an empirical science, the best way to find out which of several
    different methods runs the fastest is simply to code them all up and
    time them. For example:

	$COUNT = 10_000; $| = 1;

	print "method 1: ";

	    ($u, $s) = times;
	    for ($i = 0; $i < $COUNT; $i++) {
		# code for method 1
	    ($nu, $ns) = times;
	    printf "%8.4fu %8.4fs\n", ($nu - $u), ($ns - $s);

	print "method 2: ";

	    ($u, $s) = times;
	    for ($i = 0; $i < $COUNT; $i++) {
		# code for method 2
	    ($nu, $ns) = times;
	    printf "%8.4fu %8.4fs\n", ($nu - $u), ($ns - $s);

    Perl5 includes a new module called  You can now simplify
    the code to use the Benchmarking, like so:

        use Benchmark;

            timethese($count, {
                Name1 => '...code for method 1...',
                Name2 => '...code for method 2...',
                ... });

    It will output something that looks similar to this:

        Benchmark: timing 100 iterations of Name1, Name2...
                Name1:  2 secs (0.50 usr 0.00 sys = 0.50 cpu)
                Name2:  1 secs (0.48 usr 0.00 sys = 0.48 cpu)

    For example, the following code will show the time difference between
    three different ways of assigning the first character of a string to
    a variable:

	use Benchmark;
	timethese(100000, {
	    'regex1' => '$str="ABCD"; $str =~ s/^(.)//; $ch = $1',
	    'regex2' => '$str="ABCD"; $str =~ s/^.//; $ch = $&',
	    'substr' => '$str="ABCD"; $ch=substr($str,0,1); substr($str,0,1)="",

    The results will be returned like this:

	Benchmark: timing 100000 iterations of regex1, regex2, substr...
	   regex1: 11 secs (10.80 usr   0.00 sys =  10.80 cpu)
	   regex2: 10 secs (10.23 usr   0.00 sys =  10.23 cpu)
	   substr:  7 secs ( 5.62 usr	0.00 sys =   5.62 cpu)

    For more specific tips, see the section on Efficiency in the
    ``Other Oddments'' chapter at the end of the Camel Book.

4.15) Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons?

    You don't have to quote strings that can't mean anything else in the
    language, like identifiers with any upper-case letters in them.
    Therefore, it's fine to do this: 

	$SIG{INT} = Timeout_Routine;

    @Days = (Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun);

    but you can't get away with this:

	$foo{while} = until;

    in place of 

	$foo{'while'} = 'until';

    The requirements on semicolons have been increasingly relaxed.  You no 
    longer need one at the end of a block, but stylistically, you're better
    to use them if you don't put the curly brace on the same line: 

	for (1..10) { print }

    is ok, as is

	@nlist = sort { $a <=> $b } @olist;

    but you probably shouldn't do this:
	for ($i = 0; $i < @a; $i++) {
	    print "i is $i\n"  # <-- oops!

    because you might want to add lines later, and anyway, it looks
    funny. :-) 

    Actually, I lied.  As of 5.001, there are two autoquoting contexts:

	This			is like this
	------------            ---------------
	$foo{line}		$foo{"line"}
	bar => stuff		"bar" => stuff

4.16) What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?

    Variable suicide is a nasty side effect of dynamic scoping and the way
    variables are passed by reference.  If you say 

	$x = 17;
	sub munge {
	    local($myvar) = $_[0];

    Then you have just clobbered $_[0]!  Why this is occurring is pretty
    heavy wizardry: the reference to $x stored in $_[0] was temporarily
    occluded by the previous local($x) statement (which, you're recall,
    occurs at run-time, not compile-time).  The work around is simple,
    however: declare your formal parameters first:

	sub munge {
	    local($myvar) = $_[0];

    That doesn't help you if you're going to be trying to access @_
    directly after the local()s.  In this case, careful use of the package
    facility is your only recourse. 

    Another manifestation of this problem occurs due to the magical nature
    of the index variable in a foreach() loop. 

	@num = 0 .. 4;
	print "num begin  @num\n";
	foreach $m (@num) { &ug }
	print "num finish @num\n";
	sub ug {
	    local($m) = 42;
	    print "m=$m  $num[0],$num[1],$num[2],$num[3]\n";
    Which prints out the mysterious:

	num begin  0 1 2 3 4
	m=42  42,1,2,3
	m=42  0,42,2,3
	m=42  0,1,42,3
	m=42  0,1,2,42
	m=42  0,1,2,3
	num finish 0 1 2 3 4

    What's happening here is that $m is an alias for each element of @num.
    Inside &ug, you temporarily change $m.  Well, that means that you've
    also temporarily changed whatever $m is an alias to!!  The only
    workaround is to be careful with global variables, using packages,
    and/or just be aware of this potential in foreach() loops. 

    The perl5 static autos via "my" do not exhibit this problem.

4.17) What does "Malformed command links" mean?

    This is a bug in 4.035.  While in general it's merely a cosmetic
    problem, it often comanifests with a highly undesirable coredumping 
    problem.  Programs known to be affected by the fatal coredump include
    plum and pcops.  This bug has been fixed since 4.036.  It did not
    resurface in 5.001.

4.18) How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?

    While the $^ variable contains the name of the current header format,
    there is no corresponding mechanism to automatically do the same thing
    for a footer.  Not knowing how big a format is going to be until you
    evaluate it is one of the major problems.

    If you have a fixed-size footer, you can get footers by checking for
    line left on page ($-) before each write, and printing the footer
    yourself if necessary.

    Another strategy is to open a pipe to yourself, using open(KID, "|-")
    and always write()ing to the KID, who then postprocesses its STDIN to
    rearrange headers and footers however you like.  Not very convenient,
    but doable.

    See the perlform(1) man page for other tricks.

4.19) Why does my Perl program keep growing in size?

    This is caused by a strange occurrence that Larry has dubbed "feeping
    creaturism".  Larry is always adding one more feature, always getting
    Perl to handle one more problem.  Hence, it keeps growing.  Once you've
    worked with perl long enough, you will probably start to do the same
    thing.  You will then notice this problem as you see your scripts
    becoming larger and larger.

    Oh, wait... you meant a currently running program and its stack size.
    Mea culpa, I misunderstood you.  ;)  While there may be a real memory
    leak in the Perl source code or even whichever malloc() you're using,
    common causes are incomplete eval()s or local()s in loops.

    An eval() which terminates in error due to a failed parsing will leave
    a bit of memory unusable. 

    A local() inside a loop:

	for (1..100) {

    will build up 100 versions of @array before the loop is done.  The
    work-around is:   

	for (1..100) {
	    undef @array;

    This local array behaviour has been fixed for perl5, but a failed
    eval() still leaks.

    One other possibility, due to the way reference counting works, is
    when you've introduced a circularity in a data structure that would
    normally go out of scope and be unreachable.  For example:

	sub oops {
	    my $x;
	    $x = \$x;

    When $x goes out of scope, the memory can't be reclaimed, because
    there's still something point to $x (itself, in this case).  A 
    full garbage collection system could solve this, but at the cost
    of a great deal of complexity in perl itself and some inevitable
    performance problems as well.  If you're making a circular data
    structure that you want freed eventually, you'll have to break the
    self-reference links yourself.

4.20) Can I do RPC in Perl?

    Yes, you can, since Perl has access to sockets.  An example of the rup
    program written in Perl can be found in the script at the
    scripts archive on  I warn you, however, that it's not
    a pretty sight, as it's used nothing from h2ph or c2ph, so everything is
    utterly hard-wired. 

4.21) Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)?  What
    does the error message "Protocol not supported" mean?

    Some System V based systems, notably Solaris 2.X, redefined some of the
    standard socket constants.  Since these were constant across all
    architectures, they were often hardwired into the perl code.  The
    "proper" way to deal with this is to make sure that you run h2ph
    against sys/socket.h, require that file and use the symbolic names

    Note that even though SunOS 4 and SunOS 5 are binary compatible, these
    values are different, and require a different for each OS.

    Under version 5, you can also "use Socket" to get the proper values.

4.22) How can I quote a variable to use in a regexp?

    From the manual:

	$pattern =~ s/(\W)/\\$1/g;

    Now you can freely use /$pattern/ without fear of any unexpected meta-
    characters in it throwing off the search.  If you don't know whether a
    pattern is valid or not, enclose it in an eval to avoid a fatal run-
    time error.  

    Perl5 provides a vastly improved way of doing this.  Simply use the
    new quotemeta character (\Q) within your variable.

4.23) How can I change the first N letters of a string?

    Remember that the substr() function produces an lvalue, that is, it may
    be assigned to.  Therefore, to change the first character to an S, you
    could do this:
	substr($var,0,1) = 'S';

    This assumes that $[ is 0;  for a library routine where you can't know
    $[, you should use this instead:

	substr($var,$[,1) = 'S';

    While it would be slower, you could in this case use a substitute:

	$var =~ s/^./S/;
    But this won't work if the string is empty or its first character is a
    newline, which "." will never match.  So you could use this instead:

	$var =~ s/^[^\0]?/S/;

    To do things like translation of the first part of a string, use
    substr, as in:

	substr($var, $[, 10) =~ tr/a-z/A-Z/;

    If you don't know the length of what to translate, something like this

	/^(\S+)/ && substr($_,$[,length($1)) =~ tr/a-z/A-Z/;
    For some things it's convenient to use the /e switch of the substitute

	s/^(\S+)/($tmp = $1) =~ tr#a-z#A-Z#, $tmp/e

    although in this case, it runs more slowly than does the previous

4.24) How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a

    If you want a count of a certain character (X) within a string, you can
    use the tr/// function like so:

    $count = ($string =~ tr/X//);
    print "There are $count Xs in the string";

    This is fine if you are just looking for a single character.  However,
    if you are trying to count multiple character substrings within a
    larger string, tr/// won't work.  What you can do is wrap a while loop
    around a pattern match.

    $string="-9 55 48 -2 23 -76 4 14 -44";
    $count++ while $string =~ /-\d+/g;
    print "There are $count negative numbers in the string";

4.25) Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?

    No, or at least, not by themselves.

    Regexps just aren't powerful enough.  Although Perl's patterns aren't
    strictly regular because they do backreferencing (the \1 notation), you
    still can't do it.  You need to employ auxiliary logic.  A simple
    approach would involve keeping a bit of state around, something 
    vaguely like this (although we don't handle patterns on the same line):

	while(<>) {
	    if (/pat1/) {
		if ($inpat++ > 0) { warn "already saw pat1" } 
	    if (/pat2/) {
		if (--$inpat < 0) { warn "never saw pat1" } 

    A rather more elaborate subroutine to pull out balanced and possibly
    nested single chars, like ` and ', { and }, or ( and ) can be found
    on in /pub/perl/scripts/pull_quotes.

4.26) What does it mean that regexps are greedy?  How can I get around it?

    The basic idea behind regexps being greedy is that they will match the
    maximum amount of data that they can, sometimes resulting in incorrect
    or strange answers.

    For example, I recently came across something like this:

	$_="this (is) an (example) of multiple parens";
	while ( m#\((.*)\)#g ) {
	    print "$1\n";

    This code was supposed to match everything between a set of
    parentheses.  The expected output was:


    However, the backreference ($1) ended up containing "is) an (example",
    clearly not what was intended.

    In perl4, the way to stop this from happening is to use a negated
    group.  If the above example is rewritten as follows, the results are

	while ( m#\(([^)]*)\)#g ) {

    In perl5 there is a new minimal matching metacharacter, '?'.  This
    character is added to the normal metacharacters to modify their
    behaviour, such as "*?", "+?", or even "??".  The example would now be
    written in the following style:

	while (m#\((.*?)\)#g )

    Hint: This new operator leads to a very elegant method of stripping
    comments from C code:


4.27) How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a

    Since we're talking about how to strip comments under perl5, now is a
    good time to talk about doing it in perl4.  Since comments can be
    embedded in strings, or look like function prototypes, care must be
    taken to ignore these cases.  Jeffrey Friedl* proposes the following
    two programs to strip C comments and C++ comments respectively:
    C comments:
        $/ = undef;
        $_ = <>; 


    C++ comments:
    	$/ = undef;
    	$_ = <>;
    	s#//(.*)|/\*[^*]*\*+([^/*][^*]*\*+)*/|"(\\.|[^"\\])*"|'(\\.|[^'\\])*'|[^/"']+#  $1 ? "/*$1 */" : $& #ge;

    (Yes, Jeffrey says, those are complete programs to strip comments

4.28) How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside

    I'm trying to split a string that is comma delimited into its different
    fields.  I could easily use split(/,/), except that I need to not split
    if the comma is inside quotes.  For example, my data file has a line
    like this:

    SAR001,"","Cimetrix, Inc","Bob Smith","CAM",N,8,1,0,7,"Error, Core Dumped"

    Due to the restriction of the quotes, this is a fairly complex
    solution.  However, we thankfully have Jeff Friedl* to handle these for
    us.  He suggests (assuming that your data is contained in the special
    variable $_):

    undef @field;
    push(@fields, defined($1) ? $1:$3) while 

4.29) Why doesn't "local($foo) = <FILE>;" work right?

    Well, it does.  The thing to remember is that local() provides an array
    context, and that the <FILE> syntax in an array context will read all the
    lines in a file.  To work around this, use:

	$foo = <FILE>;

    You can use the scalar() operator to cast the expression into a scalar

	local($foo) = scalar(<FILE>);

4.30) How can I detect keyboard input without reading it? 

    You should check out the Frequently Asked Questions list in
    comp.unix.* for things like this: the answer is essentially the same.
    It's very system dependent.  Here's one solution that works on BSD

	sub key_ready {
	    local($rin, $nfd);
	    vec($rin, fileno(STDIN), 1) = 1;
	    return $nfd = select($rin,undef,undef,0);

    Under perl5, you should look into getting the ReadKey extension from
    your regular perl archive.

4.31) How can I read a single character from the keyboard under UNIX and DOS?

    A closely related question to the no-echo question below is how to
    input a single character from the keyboard.  Again, this is a system
    dependent operation.  As with the previous question, you probably want
    to get the ReadKey extension.  The following code may or may not help
    you.  It should work on both SysV and BSD flavors of UNIX:

	$BSD = -f '/vmunix';
	if ($BSD) {
	    system "stty cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
	else {
	    system "stty", '-icanon',
	    system "stty", 'eol', "\001"; 

	$key = getc(STDIN);

	if ($BSD) {
	    system "stty -cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
	else {
	    system "stty", 'icanon';
	    system "stty", 'eol', '^@'; # ascii null
	print "\n";

    You could also handle the stty operations yourself for speed if you're
    going to be doing a lot of them.  This code works to toggle cbreak
    and echo modes on a BSD system:

    sub set_cbreak { # &set_cbreak(1) or &set_cbreak(0)
	local($on) = $_[0];
	require 'sys/';
	$sgttyb_t   = 'C4 S' unless $sgttyb_t;  # c2ph: &sgttyb'typedef()

	ioctl(STDIN,&TIOCGETP,$sgttyb) || die "Can't ioctl TIOCGETP: $!";

	@ary = unpack($sgttyb_t,$sgttyb);
	if ($on) {
	    $ary[4] |= &CBREAK;
	    $ary[4] &= ~&ECHO;
	} else {
	    $ary[4] &= ~&CBREAK;
	    $ary[4] |= &ECHO;
	$sgttyb = pack($sgttyb_t,@ary);

	ioctl(STDIN,&TIOCSETP,$sgttyb) || die "Can't ioctl TIOCSETP: $!";

    Note that this is one of the few times you actually want to use the
    getc() function; it's in general way too expensive to call for normal
    I/O.  Normally, you just use the <FILE> syntax, or perhaps the read()
    or sysread() functions.

    For perspectives on more portable solutions, use anon ftp to retrieve
    the file /pub/perl/info/keypress from

    Under Perl5, with William Setzer's Curses module, you can call
    &Curses::cbreak() and &Curses::nocbreak() to turn cbreak mode on and
    off.  You can then use getc() to read each character.  This should work
    under both BSD and SVR systems.  If anyone can confirm or deny
    (especially William), please contact the maintainers.

    For DOS systems, Dan Carson <dbc@tc.fluke.COM> reports:

    To put the PC in "raw" mode, use ioctl with some magic numbers gleaned
    from msdos.c (Perl source file) and Ralf Brown's interrupt list (comes
    across the net every so often):

	$old_ioctl = ioctl(STDIN,0,0);     # Gets device info
	$old_ioctl &= 0xff;
	ioctl(STDIN,1,$old_ioctl | 32);    # Writes it back, setting bit 5

    Then to read a single character:

	sysread(STDIN,$c,1);               # Read a single character

    And to put the PC back to "cooked" mode:

	ioctl(STDIN,1,$old_ioctl);         # Sets it back to cooked mode.

    So now you have $c.  If ord($c) == 0, you have a two byte code, which
    means you hit a special key.  Read another byte (sysread(STDIN,$c,1)),
    and that value tells you what combination it was according to this

	# PC 2-byte keycodes = ^@ + the following:

	# HEX     KEYS
	# ---     ----
	# 0F      SHF TAB
	# 2C-32   ALT ZXCVBNM
	# 3B-44   F1-F10
	# 47-49   HOME,UP,PgUp
	# 4B      LEFT
	# 4D      RIGHT
	# 4F-53   END,DOWN,PgDn,Ins,Del
	# 54-5D   SHF F1-F10
	# 5E-67   CTR F1-F10
	# 68-71   ALT F1-F10
	# 78-83   ALT 1234567890-=
	# 84      CTR PgUp

    This is all trial and error I did a long time ago, I hope I'm reading the
    file that worked.

4.32) How can I get input from the keyboard without it echoing to the

    Terminal echoing is generally handled directly by the shell.
    Therefore, there is no direct way in perl to turn echoing on and off.
    However, you can call the command "stty [-]echo".  The following will
    allow you to accept input without it being echoed to the screen, for
    example as a way to accept passwords (error checking deleted for

	print "Please enter your password: ";
        system("stty -echo");
	print "\n";
	system("stty echo");

    Again, under perl 5, you can use Curses and call &Curses::noecho() and
    &Curses::echo() to turn echoing off and on.  Or, there's always the
    ReadKey extension.

4.33) Is there any easy way to strip blank space from the beginning/end of
    a string?

    Yes, there is.  Using the substitution command, you can match the
    blanks and replace it with nothing.  For example, if you have the
    string "     String     " you can use this:

    	s/^\s*(.*?)\s*$/$1/; 	# perl5 only!

    	s/^\s+|\s+$//g;	    	# perl4 or perl5

    or even

    	s/^\s+//; s/\s+$//;

    Note however that Jeffrey Friedl* says these are only good for shortish
    strings.  For longer strings, and worse-case scenarios, they tend to
    break-down and become inefficient.

    For the longer strings, he suggests using either

    	$_ = $1 if m/^\s*((.*\S)?)/;


    It should also be noted that for generally nice strings, these tend to
    be noticably slower than the simple ones above.  It is suggested that
    you use whichever one will fit your situation best, understanding that
    the first examples will work in roughly ever situation known even if
    slow at times.

4.34) How can I print out a number with commas into it?

    This one will do it for you:

	sub commify {
	    local($_) = shift;
	    1 while s/^(-?\d+)(\d{3})/$1,$2/;
	    return $_;

	$n = 23659019423.2331;
	print "GOT: ", &commify($n), "\n";

	GOT: 23,659,019,423.2331

    The reason you can't just do


    Is that you have to put the comma in and then recalculate anything.  
    Some substitutions need to work this way.  See the question on 
    expanding tabs for another such.

4.35) How do I expand tabs in a string?

	1 while s/\t+/' ' x (length($&) * 8 - length($`) % 8)/e;

    You could have written that

	while (s/\t+/' ' x (length($&) * 8 - length($`) % 8)/e) {
	    # spin, spin, spin, ....

    Placed in a function:

	sub tab_expand {
	    local($_) = shift;
	    1 while s/\t+/' ' x (length($&) * 8 - length($`) % 8)/e;
	    return $_;

    This is especially important when you're working going to unpack 
    an ascii string that might have tabs in it.  Otherwise you'll be
    off on the byte count.  For example:

	$NG = "/usr/local/lib/news/newsgroups";
	open(NG, "< $NG") || die "can't open $NG: $!";
	while (<NG>) {
	    chop;  # chomp would be better, but it's only perl5
	    # now for the darned tabs in the newsgroups file
	    1 while s/\t+/' ' x (length($&) * 8 - length($`) % 8)/e;
	    ($ng, $desc) = unpack("A24 A*", $_);
	    if (length($ng) == 24) {
		$desc =~ s/^(\S+)\s*//;
		$ng .= $1;

4.36) What's wrong with grep() or map() in a void context?

    Well, nothing precisely, but it's not a good way to write 
    maintainable code.  It's just fine to use grep when you want
    an answer, like

	@bignums = grep ($_ > 100, @allnums);
	@triplist = map {$_ * 3} @allnums;

    But using it in a void context like this:

	grep{ $_ *= 3, @nums);

    Is using it for its side-effects, and side-effects can be mystifying.
    There's no void grep that's not better written as a for() loop:

	for (@nums) { $_ *= 3 } 

    In the same way, a ?: in a void context is considered poor form:

	fork ? wait : exec $prog;

    When you can write it this way:

	if (fork) {
	} else {
	    exec $prog;
	    die "can't exec $prog: $!";

    Of course, using ?: in expressions is just what it's made for, 
    and just fine (but try not to nest them.).

    Remember that the most important things in almost any program are,
    and in this order:

	1. correctness
	2. maintainability
	3. efficiency

    Notice at no point did cleverness enter the picture.

    On the other hand, if you're just trying write JAPHs (aka Obfuscated
    Perl entries), or write ugly code, you would probably invert these :-)

	1. cleverness
	2. efficiency
	3. maintainability
	4. correctness

Stephen P Potter        Pencom Systems Administration              Beaching It	Pager: 1-800-759-8888, 547-9561     Work: 703-860-2222
  Cthulhu for President in '96: When You're Tired of the Lesser of Two Evils
Stephen P Potter        Pencom Systems Administration              Beaching It	Pager: 1-800-759-8888, 547-9561     Work: 703-860-2222
"I don't care whether people actually like Perl, just so long as they *think*
	they like it...  ;-)"	-Larry Wall

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