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perlmodinstall ()
  • >> perlmodinstall (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • perlmodinstall (1) ( Разные man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )


         perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules


         You can think of a module as the fundamental unit of
         reusable Perl code; See the perlmod manpage for details.
         Whenever anyone creates a chunk of Perl code that they think
         will be useful to the world, they register as a Perl
         developer at
         so that they can then upload their code to CPAN.  CPAN is
         the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network and can be accessed
         at, or searched via and .
         This documentation is for people who want to download CPAN
         modules and install them on their own computer.
         You have a file ending in .tar.gz (or, less often, .zip).
         You know there's a tasty module inside.  You must now take
         four steps:
         DECOMPRESS the file
         UNPACK the file into a directory
         BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary)
         INSTALL the module.
         Here's how to perform each step for each operating system.
         This is not a substitute for reading the README and INSTALL
         files that might have come with your module!
         Also note that these instructions are tailored for
         installing the module into your system's repository of Perl
         modules.  But you can install modules into any directory you
         wish.  For instance, where I say `perl Makefile.PL', you can
         substitute `perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory' to
         install the modules into `/my/perl_directory'.  Then you can
         use the modules from your Perl programs with `use lib
         "/my/perl_directory/lib/site_perl"' or sometimes just `use
         o   If you're on Unix,
             You can use Andreas Koenig's CPAN module (which comes
             standard with Perl, or can itself be downloaded from
             automate the following steps, from DECOMPRESS through
             A. DECOMPRESS
             Decompress the file with `gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz'
             You can get gzip from
             Or, you can combine this step with the next to save disk
                  gzip -dc yourmodule.tar.gz | tar -xof -
             B. UNPACK
             Unpack the result with `tar -xof yourmodule.tar'
             C. BUILD
             Go into the newly-created directory and type:
                   perl Makefile.PL
                   make test
             D. INSTALL
             While still in that directory, type:
                   make install
             Make sure you have appropriate permissions to install
             the module in your Perl 5 library directory.  Often,
             you'll need to be root.
             Perl maintains a record of all module installations.  To
             look at this list, simply type:
                   perldoc perllocal
             That's all you need to do on Unix systems with dynamic
             linking.  Most Unix systems have dynamic linking--if
             yours doesn't, or if for another reason you have a
             statically-linked perl, and the module requires
             compilation, you'll need to build a new Perl binary that
             includes the module.  Again, you'll probably need to be
         o   If you're running Windows 95 or NT with the ActiveState
             port of Perl
                A. DECOMPRESS
             You can use the shareware Winzip program (
    ) to decompress and unpack
                B. UNPACK
             If you used WinZip, this was already done for you.
                C. BUILD
             Does the module require compilation (i.e. does it have
             files that end in .xs, .c, .h, .y, .cc, .cxx, or .C)?
             If it does, you're on your own.  You can try compiling
             it yourself if you have a C compiler.  If you're
             successful, consider uploading the resulting binary to
             CPAN for others to use.  If it doesn't, go to INSTALL.
                D. INSTALL
             Copy the module into your Perl's lib directory.  That'll
             be one of the directories you see when you type
                perl -e 'print "@INC"'
         o   If you're running Windows 95 or NT with the core Windows
             distribution of Perl,
                A. DECOMPRESS
             When you download the module, make sure it ends in
             either .tar.gz or .zip.  Windows browsers sometimes
             download `.tar.gz' files as `_tar.tar', because early
             versions of Windows prohibited more than one dot in a
             You can use the shareware WinZip program (
    ) to decompress and unpack
             Or, you can use InfoZip's `unzip' utility (
    ) to uncompress `.zip'
             files; type `unzip' in your shell.
             Or, if you have a working `tar' and `gzip', you can type
                gzip -cd yourmodule.tar.gz | tar xvf -
             in the shell to decompress `yourmodule.tar.gz'.  This
             will UNPACK your module as well.
                B. UNPACK
             The methods in DECOMPRESS will have done this for you.
                C. BUILD
             Go into the newly-created directory and type:
                   perl Makefile.PL
                   dmake test
             Depending on your perl configuration, `dmake' might not
             be available.  You might have to substitute whatever
             `perl -V:make' says. (Usually, that will be `nmake' or
                D. INSTALL
             While still in that directory, type:
                   dmake install
         o   If you're using a Macintosh,
             A. DECOMPRESS
             In general, all Macintosh decompression utilities
             mentioned here can be found in the Info-Mac Hyperarchive
             ( ).
             Specificly the "Commpress & Translate" listing (
             You can either use the shareware StuffIt Expander
             program ( ) in
             combination with DropStuff with Expander Enhancer (
    ) or the freeware
             MacGzip program (
             B. UNPACK
             If you're using DropStuff or Stuffit, you can just
             extract the tar archive.  Otherwise, you can use the
             freeware suntar or Tar (
             C. BUILD
             Does the module require compilation?
             1. If it does,
             Overview: You need MPW and a combination of new and old
             CodeWarrior compilers for MPW and libraries.  Makefiles
             created for building under MPW use Metrowerks compilers.
             It's most likely possible to build without other
             compilers, but it has not been done successfully, to our
             knowledge.  Read the documentation in MacPerl: Power and
             Ease ( ) on porting/building
             extensions, or find an existing precompiled binary, or
             hire someone to build it for you.
             Or, ask someone on the mac-perl mailing list (mac-
    to build it for you.  To subscribe
             to the mac-perl mailing list, send mail to mac-perl-
             2. If the module doesn't require compilation, go to
             D. INSTALL
             Make sure the newlines for the modules are in Mac
             format, not Unix format.  If they are not then you might
             have decompressed them incorrectly.  Check your
             decompression and unpacking utilities settings to make
             sure they are translating text files properly.
             As a last resort, you can use the perl one-liner:
                 perl -i.bak -pe 's/(?:\015)?\012/\015/g' <filenames>
             on the source files.
             Move the files manually into the correct folders.
             Move the files to their final destination: This will
             most likely be in `$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:' (i.e.,
             `HD:MacPerl folder:site_lib:').  You can add new paths
             to the default `@INC' in the Preferences menu item in
             the MacPerl application (`$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:' is
             added automagically).  Create whatever directory
             structures are required (i.e., for `Some::Module',
             create `$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:Some:' and put `'
             in that directory).
             Run the following script (or something like it):
                  #!perl -w
                  use AutoSplit;
                  my $dir = "${MACPERL}site_perl";
                  autosplit("$", "$dir:auto", 0, 1, 1);
             Eventually there should be a way to automate the
             installation process; some solutions exist, but none are
             ready for the general public yet.
         o   If you're on the DJGPP port of DOS,
                A. DECOMPRESS
             djtarx (
    ) will
             both uncompress and unpack.
                B. UNPACK
             See above.
                C. BUILD
             Go into the newly-created directory and type:
                   perl Makefile.PL
                   make test
             You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in
             the Perl distribution.
                D. INSTALL
             While still in that directory, type:
                  make install
             You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in
             the Perl distribution.
         o   If you're on OS/2,
             Get the EMX development suite and gzip/tar, from either
             Hobbes ( ) or Leo (
    ), and then follow the instructions
             for Unix.
         o   If you're on VMS,
             When downloading from CPAN, save your file with a .tgz
             extension instead of .tar.gz.  All other periods in the
             filename should be replaced with underscores.  For
             example, `Your-Module-1.33.tar.gz' should be downloaded
             as `Your-Module-1_33.tgz'.
             A. DECOMPRESS
                 gzip -d Your-Module.tgz
             or, for zipped modules, type
             Executables for gzip, zip, and VMStar ( Alphas:
             and Vaxen:
             gzip and tar are also available at
             Note that GNU's gzip/gunzip is not the same as Info-
             ZIP's zip/unzip package.  The former is a simple
             compression tool; the latter permits creation of multi-
             file archives.
             B. UNPACK
             If you're using VMStar:
                  VMStar xf Your-Module.tar
             Or, if you're fond of VMS command syntax:
                  tar/extract/verbose Your_Module.tar
             C. BUILD
             Make sure you have MMS (from Digital) or the freeware
             MMK ( available from MadGoat at
             ).  Then type this to create the DESCRIP.MMS for the
                 perl Makefile.PL
             Now you're ready to build:
                 mms test
             Substitute `mmk' for `mms' above if you're using MMK.
             D. INSTALL
                 mms install
             Substitute `mmk' for `mms' above if you're using MMK.
         o   If you're on MVS,
             Introduce the .tar.gz file into an HFS as binary; don't
             translate from ASCII to EBCDIC.
             A. DECOMPRESS
                   Decompress the file with C<gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz>
                   You can get gzip from
             B. UNPACK
             Unpack the result with
                  pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < yourmodule.tar
             The BUILD and INSTALL steps are identical to those for
             Unix.  Some modules generate Makefiles that work better
             with GNU make, which is available from


         If you have any suggested changes for this page, let me
         know.  Please don't send me mail asking for help on how to
         install your modules.  There are too many modules, and too
         few Orwants, for me to be able to answer or even acknowledge
         all your questions.  Contact the module author instead, or
         post to comp.lang.perl.modules, or ask someone familiar with
         Perl on your operating system.


         Jon Orwant
         The Perl Journal,
         with invaluable help from Brandon Allbery, Charles Bailey,
         Graham Barr, Dominic Dunlop, Jarkko Hietaniemi, Ben Holzman,
         Tom Horsley, Nick Ing-Simmons, Tuomas J. Lukka, Laszlo
         Molnar, Chris Nandor, Alan Olsen, Peter Prymmer, Gurusamy
         Sarathy, Christoph Spalinger, Dan Sugalski, Larry Virden,
         and Ilya Zakharevich.
         July 22, 1998


         Copyright (C) 1998 Jon Orwant.  All Rights Reserved.
         Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies
         of this documentation provided the copyright notice and this
         permission notice are preserved on all copies.
         Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified
         versions of this documentation under the conditions for
         verbatim copying, provided also that they are marked clearly
         as modified versions, that the authors' names and title are
         unchanged (though subtitles and additional authors' names
         may be added), and that the entire resulting derived work is
         distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical
         to this one.
         Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of
         this documentation into another language, under the above
         conditions for modified versions.

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